The start and end of several wars, a growth in specialized schools, three new states were admitted, and a financial panic divides the country.
The 1810 Census recorded a population of 7,239,881. The geographic center of the United States population moved to approximately 20 miles northwest of Washington, D.C.
War of 1812: the United States declared war on Great Britain. The war ended in 1815.
Napoleonic Wars: Began in 1802, ended in 1815, when Napoleon was exiled for the second and final time.
The Connecticut Asylum for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opened in 1817.
The transition from a largely agrarian society to a more urban one brought with it many growth spurts as well as problems. The move to cities brought with it innovations in clothing, transportation and communications, making them more affordable for the “average” citizen. New textile processes accelerated the Industrial Revolution in the Northeast. The Southern economy relied on producing and exporting cotton, sugar, rice, tobacco, and wheat. Production of work-intense cash crops like cotton and tobacco expanded and the Southern economy became more dependent on slave labor to keep the price of its crops competitive. The invention of the cotton gin also helped increase cotton production and made slavery profitable. Working conditions were generally unsafe, and pollution from the burning of coal and gas was increasing.
The Erie Canal was begun in 1817 (completed in 1825). Horse-drawn carriages, wagons, and farm implements were still the norm; steam power was utilized to a limited extent but had not yet been fully accepted.
1812: Louisiana admitted as the 18th state; Louisiana Territory renamed Missouri Territory
1816: Indiana admitted as the 19th state
1817: Mississippi admitted as the 20th state
1818: The official US flag has 13 stripes and 20 stars.
The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States. It was followed by a collapse of the American economy that persisted through 1821. The Panic heralded the transition of the nation from its European colonial commercial status toward an independent economy.